口语交际任务 – Oral Communication Tasks

从实用的角度来讲,学习一门语言就是为了能通过这个工具来实现不同个体之间的互动,尤其是一门外语能让一个人的互动范围扩大很多。如果能较为全面的列出人们不同个体间通用的那些交际活动,可以使学习一门新的语言的目标更加明确。把这些通用的交际活动转化为学习时的交际任务(Communication Tasks),在学习时围绕这些任务去用各种手段去练习,这样更能使学习一门语言更加高效。(但需要声明:我个人没有为也不喜欢为所谓实用的目的来学习)

在网络上搜到一个列表,收藏下来,对我目前的工作比较有帮助。当然对于语言教学者、学习者都会有一定的指导作用。

原贴地址:http://miguelbengoa.com/elt/2008/03/07/oral-communication-tasks

Here is a suggested taxonomy for oral communication task types, not in any order of importance.
以下是一个值得推荐的口语交际任务类型的分类,不是按重要性排序的 。

  • Providing extended answers to oral questions.
    对口头提问能提供具有扩展性的答复。
  • Asking and answering questions about diagrams or other visual representations of information.
    对于图示或其它视觉化(直观)的信息表现形式进行提问并回答。
  • Asking for information to solve problems or complete a job-related task.
    为解决问题或完成工作相关的任务询问信息。
  • Making requests and observing conventions of politeness.
    提出请求并遵守礼仪方面的惯例。
  • Sustaining short conversations using informal register[s].
    运用非正式主体来维持短小的会话。
  • Managing the various aspects of a conversation [opening, turn taking, nominating a topic, repairing misunderstanding by asking for clarification or by repeating or rephrasing, linking ideas, adjusting the message, & closing].
    掌握会话中的各个方面[开始、话论转换、提出话题、通过请求说明或者重复或者改述来修正误解、连接观点、调整信息和结束]。
  • Passing on messages that can be restructured to distinguish between factual content and interpretation.
    传达出的信息能被重新构建,使得该信息是有实际内容或者是解释说明两者能很清晰地分别开。
  • Sustaining a conversation for a short period of time in order to gather information about a specific situation or to perform a work-related task or function.
    持续进行短时间的会话,来收集关于特定情况的信息或完成工作相关的任务或职能。
  • Using the language of meetings [presenting, agreeing & disagreeing, questioning, interrupting, expressing an opinion, summarizing] to express himself in job-related situations.
    在工作相关的情景下使用会议语言[演示、同意与不同意、询问、打断、表述观点、总结]。
  • Issuing straightforward instructions.
    进行简易的指导
  • Using appropriate natural language [less formal vocabulary, contractions, discourse markers, ellipsis & elision] of spoken modes.
    使用恰当的自然语言[不太正式的词汇、缩略、话语标记、简化与略音]口语模式。
  • Listening to extended semi-formal and informal explanations.
    听扩充性的半正式和非正式解释。
  • Understanding what degrees of urgency or obligation attach to requests.
    理解请求所相连的紧急程度和责任大小。
  • Demonstrating an understanding of regulations by reformulating them in own words
    通过用自己的词语来重新阐述规则来展示出对它的理解。
  • Understanding an audiotape or video-tape on a familiar topic.
    理解有关熟悉的话题的磁带或者录像。
  • Explaining the gist and the step-by-step details of a diagram or graphic with appropriate descriptive language.
    使用恰当的描述性语言来解释一个图表或图形的要点与每一步的细节。
  • Orally paraphrasing text when necessary.
    在必要的时候进行口头释义。
  • Giving an extended explanation involving steps, problem-solution structure, and description of a piece of equipment or a tool or a familiar abstract concept.
    对于一件设备或工具或一个熟悉的抽象概念给出一个有扩展性的解释,包括步骤、问题——方案结构和描述。
  • Listening to lectures and formal presentations with a clear structure.
    听有清晰架构的讲演和正式的演示。
  • Listening to lectures and formal presentations with digressions.
    听会有跑题的讲演和正式的演示。
  • Reading aloud short purposeful texts.
    大声朗读有目的性的短文。

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9 Replies to “口语交际任务 – Oral Communication Tasks”

  1. So tedious and boring. The list is just detailed instructions…alone are useless.
    IF you start to communicate with others and apply to respects of your life, you will face the situations listed on the article.

    You are forced to, or say, you have to speak, be misunderstood, clarify, correct, extend your ideas. THAT’s what a speaker did , do and will do.

    The desire to expression is fully strong ; it will lead you to speak , to learn, to fulfill. WHILE you really forget that thing named “Oral Communication Tasks”.

    That’s what a language for: exchange of ideas; communication.

  2. You are right. As the article says this list is just a “taxonomy” of the communication tasks. I posted it here was just for a reference. It was not intended to be used as a learning method or anything. A language learner, especially a beginner, doesn’t need to know this. I’m discussing some theories in SLA with our teachers recently and everyone is vague about “communication tasks”. That’s why we want a list of them.

  3. Here “Oral Communication Tasks” is a term. Our teachers need to know what that term really means. When the teachers have a whole picture about different kinds of oral communication tasks, they can use what you said about oral communication as a guidance to coach the students in those different tasks.

  4. So tedious and boring. The list is just detailed instructions…alone are useless.
    IF you start to communicate with others and apply to respects of your life, you will face the situations listed on the article.

    You are forced to, or say, you have to speak, be misunderstood, clarify, correct, extend your ideas. THAT\’s what a speaker did , do and will do.

    The desire to expression is fully strong ; it will lead you to speak , to learn, to fulfill. WHILE you really forget that thing named “Oral Communication Tasks”.

    That\’s what a language for: exchange of ideas; communication.

  5. You are right. As the article says this list is just a “taxonomy” of the communication tasks. I posted it here was just for a reference. It was not intended to be used as a learning method or anything. A language learner, especially a beginner, doesn\’t need to know this. I\’m discussing some theories in SLA with our teachers recently and everyone is vague about “communication tasks”. That\’s why we want a list of them.

  6. Thank you for sharing the background information.

    Most teachers I have encountered are lack of theories, if any, one. (Apparently, you are not include. I appreciate your desire to learn new. :)They have valued teaching skills more than teaching itself. For a newcomer student, it may be enough and qualified to show off; while for a student making progress, it may be not.

    As a guidance, this article you posted may play a integral part in class, e.g. teaching tasks organization.

    I wish your teaching team harvest pleasure in learning.
    We cannot change the world, but the part we touch.

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