[转]Mac OS X下各种模拟器评测及下载

ARCADE模拟器

名称:SDLMAME

最新版本:0.143u2

官网下载:http://sdlmame.parodius.com

额外需要的插件SDL FRAMEWORK:http://www.libsdl.org/download-1.2.php

图形化外壳工具M+GUI:http://mameicons.free.fr/mame32p/download.htm

模拟情况:跟PC版基本一样,基本完美,全屏声音有些延迟,个人感觉



FC模拟器

名称:Nestopia

最新版本:1.4.1

官网下载:http://www.bannister.org/software/nestopia.htm

模拟情况:基本完美

MD模拟器

名称:Kega Fusion

最新版本:3.63i

官网下载:http://www.eidolons-inn.net/tiki-index.php?page=kega

模拟情况:基本完美

SFC模拟器

名称:Snes9x

最新版本:1.53

官网下载:http://snes9x.ipherswipsite.com

模拟情况:基本完美

PS模拟器

名称:PCSX Reloaded

最新版本:1.9.92

官网下载:http://pcsxr.codeplex.com/releases/view/50048

模拟情况:基本完美

SS模拟器

名称:Yabause

最新版本:0.9.10

官网下载:http://yabause.org/download/

模拟情况:基本完美



NGC模拟器

名称:Dolphin Emulator

最新版本:7689

官网下载:http://www.dolphin-emulator.com/download.html

模拟情况:与PC版基本一样

NDS模拟器

名称:DeSmuME

最新版本:0.97

官网下载:http://sourceforge.net/projects/desmume/files/desmume/0.9.7/

模拟情况:与PC版基本一样

GBA模拟器

名称:Boycott Advance

最新版本:0.4.0

官网下载:http://www.bannister.org/software/ba.htm

模拟情况:基本完美



PSP模拟器

名称:JPCSP

最新版本:2251

新版下载:http://buildbot.orphis.net/jpcsp/

模拟情况:跟PC版基本一样

PS2模拟器

名称:PCSX2

最新版本:20110124

官网下载:http://pcsx2mac.net/downloads/

额外需要的插件CG Framework 3.0:http://http.developer.nvidia.com/Cg/cg_3_0_0007.html

模拟情况:勉强可玩

DC模拟器

名称:lxdream

最新版本:0.9.1

官网下载:http://www.lxdream.org/download.php

模拟情况:很不理想

原文地址:http://f.ppxclub.com/138294-1-1

 

十大教育游戏化的例子[下篇]

续《十大教育游戏化的例子[上篇]

教育游戏化实例#6 – Coursera:您家里的互动常春藤盟校教育

courseraCoursera是一个拥有教育技术和社会企业家精神的公司,与著名大学的合作使他们的一些在线课程得以免费提供。科目包括从科学与工程到人文和商业的各种课程。各课程设计成以周为单位进行推送的一系列包含不同的主题和任务的短视频。通过完成作业和在线考试来检验学习进度,同时也提供机器分级和评估。具备良好的教育游戏化的精神,学习成果会立即报告给学生以及教学人员以提供反馈和支持。在某些情况下,升级、徽章等奖励制度也得到贯彻落实。强调学生之间的互动性,鼓励参与和协作。也提供频繁的反馈,使学生得以监察其进度和自我评价对学习材料的理解。

有趣的是,在Coursera最流行的是游戏化相关的课程。游戏化教育万岁!

教育游戏化实例#7 – Mr Pai的课堂:数字辅助课堂

classroom-games-pai-02有时,最好的游戏化的例子是那些结合了多种有趣的技术和解决方案的项目。明尼苏达白熊湖的Parkview/Centerpoint小学的三年级老师Ananth Pai深深相信游戏在教育中的重要作用。游戏可以使学生了解更多,学得更快,并关注自己的学习水平,而不是担心课堂上别的同学。

他大力提倡互动学习游戏,能够单独完成的、可以与课堂上的其他学生甚至其他城市、州和国家的学生一同进行的。在Pai老师的课堂上与众不同的是大量使用各种设备和媒体通道。不只是电脑上的单机程序和游戏,还有基于网络和基于平台(如任天堂)的游戏。他采取了传统的教育方法,并揉合了技术来创建新的、数字辅助的学习体验。结果是,这种数字辅助学习形式提高了课堂学习兴趣,改善了数学和阅读成绩,提高了整体的热情和学生的参与度。通常情况下,程序和游戏都是基于多学科,如游戏Flower Power,它引入了经济学和商业的基本概念为学生提高他们的数学技能。多重目标、成果、奖励以及来自同学和Pai老师的正面反馈等特点使得课堂极具参与感和趣味性。是的,课堂和学习可以很有趣——即使不全对那也大多数情况下是如此。

由于获得了学生、家长、其他教师以及支持企业和组织的热烈响应,以致于学校出台政策(学校法则)大力倡导所有班级采用数字辅助学习。这不是简单的对教育进行游戏化,也是在游戏化教育设计上的一次尝试!

教育游戏化实例#8 – CourseHero:改善师生在线互动

CourseHeroCourse Hero是一个面向学生的在线学习平台,也是教育工作者发布他们的教育资源的一个门户。该网站收集并组织由教育工作者和学生用户上传的学习资料,形成一个庞大的学习资源库。这个教育游戏化平台提供如教学大纲、习题集和实践考试的资料,与课堂笔记、抽认卡和上传的学习指南相结合。此外,Course Hero提供访问导师、数字抽认卡和视频讲座。数字抽认卡的应用可以让学生建立自己的学习计划,也可以让其他人访问。它允许他们设置学习的步伐,以帮助最大限度地提高记忆。该系统还给学生提供基于进度的徽章系统。

Course Hero的一个突出特点是“课程组”,它提供了一系列基于网页内容聚合的免费和付费课程。每门课程通常由6个部分组成,每个部分通过视频和文章结合教学,通过不断的练习来测量进度,直到学生掌握该课程。有些课程被进一步分为三个课程路径:企业家精神、商业和Web编程。对于完成其中一个路径中5门及以上课程的学生,Course Hero将提供一个荣誉称号,有额外的奖励。这些额外奖励包括受邀向一个SV天使进行商业计划路演、Course Hero提供的面试机会和/或者现金奖励。另一个伟大的游戏化教学的榜样。

教育游戏化实例9 – Brainscape:将基于信心的重复(CBR)变成游戏

Brainscape曾在2011年的教育行业风险投资峰会上公开展示,Brainscape是旨在帮助学生智能化学习的移动端和网页端的教育平台。该方案采用自适应算法来创建卡片,卡片上的呈现模式会自动针对学生已经知道的和似乎是有些纠结的部分而改变,把注意力集中在更困难的主题上。

这个教育游戏化平台所采用的方法被称为基于信心的重复(Confidence Based Repetition, CBR)。当学生回答每一个问题的时候,Brainscape还会问他们对于该概念永远记住的信心有多大,利用此信息来确定还需要多少重复和强化的过程。每张卡的颜色也按照自信程度设计:从1红色的“没有信心”到5蓝色的“完全的信心”,在显示下一张卡片之前提供视觉暗示以提示需要进行进一步的巩固。

这样一个极具潜力的初创项目由两部分组成,一个提供免费、自我创建的抽认卡,另一个针对教育工作者和学生进行销售的优质内容。此游戏化教学的例子对于勤奋的大学生来说是一个伟大的工具,因为它在iPhone或iPod Touch平台上的使用率很高,把传统的卡片转变为更加实用的工具。

教育游戏化实例10 – Socrative 101:老师和学生之间的当堂移动互动

Socrative 101很多学生觉得学校很枯燥和乏味,但Socrative 101提供了解决方案。这家教育游戏化公司可以更容易地通过一个反应系统,在一台笔记本电脑或移动设备上提供教学练习和游戏吸引学生。
开始时教师会有一个“房号”,他们可以给到学生。学生们将前往m.socratic.com并输入房间号参加会议。然后,教师可以让学生参与,与他们互动,然后开始进行测验。一旦测验完成后,结果会立即提供给教师。

针对数字原生代,这种教育游戏化项目帮助教师将这些现代学习方式结合到课堂中并且能更好地追踪效果。通过使用移动设备,任何课堂都可以变得更具互动性和乐趣。由于学生的预期在不断改变,教育必须跟上步伐,这家初创项目可能是使这个目的实现的首要步骤之一。

结论:教育游戏化已经在改变我们的未来

上述所有伟大的例子,仅仅是所有伟大的教育游戏化例子的冰山一角。教育游戏化是已经到来,并必将改变世界的。
你怎么认为?你知道其它伟大的教育游戏化的例子吗?还有哪些能够真正影响我们的社会的例子,不只是一代人更是未来几代人?我期待着在评​​论中向你们学习!
(感谢Jerry Fuqua和William Baeyens对我写作此文提供的帮助)

This post is written by Yukai Chou. Yu-kai is an International Gamification Keynote Speaker and a Partner for the Enterprise Gamification Consultancy. Started in 2003 as a Gamification Pioneer, he is the original creator of the Gamification Framework Octalysis and teaches/speaks about Octalysis throughout the US, Europe, and Asia. Yu-kai is also a Regular Speaker/Lecturer at Stanford University, and is rated as a Top 5 Gamification Guru by Leaderboarded.

十大教育游戏化的例子[上篇]

教育游戏化领域具有很大的潜力。我认为,人类有一种与生俱来的学习欲望。然而,很大程度上学校的教育系统却成为了我们学习欲望的拦路虎。如果你问一个小孩:“工作是什么?”他们会说:“学校和家庭作业!”但是如果你问他们:“玩是什么呢?”很多人都会说:“视频和游戏!”。显然,应该有一种方法来帮助孩子们以自己最擅长的方式来学习——玩。这就是为什么许多教育工作者正在研究各种新的教育游戏化工具和技术。

现代教育已不能再是单调地一边讲解知识一边检测学生的记忆与理解的形式,如今面临着许多挑战,诸如吸引学生、激发他们的兴趣、保持他们的注意力,以及营造一个能让学生保持积极态度的环境。实现这些目标的关键是在老师与学生、学生与学生之间维持一个顺畅沟通的环境,鼓励反馈和互相协助。这些社会化交互机制,在对激励和约束进行适度的控制的前提下,可以设计为有效的“好玩”的学习情境。下面的例子显示了一些巧妙的方法,不仅改善了学习的过程,同时也营造出了更有效的教育环境。

教育游戏化示例#1 – DuoLingo:在翻译网页的同时学习一门语言

1duolingoDuolingo是一个结合了免费语言学习网站与有偿众包文本翻译网站为一体的一个巨大的在线协作平台。这项服务的目的是让学生在帮助翻译网页和文档的同时,能够学习一门相应的语言。

新手从来自网页基本的、简单的句子开始,而高级用户则会接收到更复杂的句子。在一个用户进步的同时,他们被要求翻译的句子的复杂性也同步提升。在每种情况下Duolingo提供了学习和翻译工具,以帮助学生正确理解和记忆他们遇到的单词。每名学生也可以给其他学生的翻译质量投票,提供有价值的反馈意见,以加强理解和学习效果。每个句子最受好评的翻译都会被允许公开查看和收藏。在学生学习一门语言的同时,他们完成课程或网页内容的翻译之后会赚到技能点。当完成给定数量的翻译后,包含相应技能的课程会相应完成。

由于网页内容本身就比“编造”的句子更有趣,翻译的任务实际上更吸引人。该网站还包括基于时间的元素,如在给定的时间期限内正确地作了解答则会得到奖励的技能点。不正确的答案会导致损失技能点和“生命”,以及对升级造成延迟。由于该系统是自适应的,它跟踪每一个完成的课、翻译、测试和练习,提供反馈给学生,并规划未来的课程和翻译工作,以更好地满足他们的需求。所有这些共同打造了一个伟大的教育游戏化体验。

教育游戏化示例#2 – Ribbon Hero:史诗游戏,教你如何使用Microsoft Office

1Ribbon HeroRibbon Hero是微软的一个免费下载的插件游戏,以帮助Office 2007和2010的用户学习如何使用新的Ribbon界面中提供的工具。教育游戏化多么具有创造性的运用!

一旦安装完毕,游戏可以很容易地从任何关键的Office程序,如Word,Excel和PowerPoint启动。在游戏中,用户(玩家)会接到挑战,如果完成可以获得点数。所面临的挑战分为四个部分:文字处理,网页设计和布局,艺术表现,以及更通用的快速得分部分。前三个部分,每一个挑战旨在向用户介绍一个主要特色功能,并让他们使用该功能编辑一个示例文档。快速得分部分不提供具体的挑战,取而代之的是列出特色功能,这可以在游戏之外用来积累得分。一半的点数可以从前三部分中所提供的游戏挑战赚取,而其余的点数必须从实现游戏之外的相同的功能赢得。

为使用户始终感兴趣,微软非常谨慎地设计各项挑战,创建出简短、相互关联的任务和提供即时的反馈和协助。此外,通过保持难度可控但具有挑战性,并提供足够的支持以确保合理的成功,游戏鼓励进一步发挥和发展Office技能。

Ribbon Hero的另一个特点是它能通过跟踪用户学习使用Office的功能和工具的进度,相应地调整所面临的挑战。不仅通过追踪游戏的进展,而且还会监视游戏以外对各功能的使用情况。随后游戏会调整训练内容,以确保用户只能看到他们以前从未见过的功能和工具。

因为Ribbon Hero可以链接到Facebook,每个玩家都可以分享他们的成绩,并与Facebook好友比拼他们的进步情况。从本质上说,Ribbon Hero是一款可以进行社会化连接的软件教程游戏。这是现有的最好的企业教育游戏化的例子之一。

注:Ribbon Hero已经有了续作——Ribbon Hero 2:大眼夹的第二次机会。这部续集在原始游戏的基础上增加了时间旅行的元素,用户可以跟随着游戏中的英雄——大眼夹,穿越到不同的时间。具有特色的时期是古埃及、古希腊、中世纪、文艺复兴时期、20世纪60年代和未来。在每一种情况下,有多种基于Office的任务必须完成之后才能进入到下一个时期。

教育游戏化示例#3 – ClassDojo:把课堂转变为具有奖励和即时反馈的游戏

1ClassDojoClassDojo是一个课堂管理工具,帮助教师轻松快速地提高课堂行为。它通过给出奖励和记录实时反馈,改善了特定的学生行为和提高了学生的参与感。

每个学生都有可明显显示在ClassDojo的头像。对于学生的积极行为,老师可以很轻松地发出快速反馈,在她的移动设备或计算机上用一个简单的点击给学生奖励反馈点。这样瞬间强化了良好的行为,同时激发了其他学生。教育游戏化技术在这里得到充分发挥。

因为反馈时间缩短,由此产生积极的强化有助于学生在课堂上培养目标感,随着时间的推移从而提高内在动机。通过给学生提供自己行为的可视性和数据,课堂变得不那么混乱,创造出一个更积极的学习环境。

该系统还提供了行为跟踪分析打印或电子邮件报告,以帮助家长和学校管理者。所有一切仅仅需要一个简单的点击,在移动设备、笔记本电脑或者平板电脑上 —— 无需数据输入。这样可以给老师们节省时间,释放他们更多的时间给学生和提供指导。

教育游戏化示例#4 – GoalBook:让学生组队完成他们的个人学习计划

1GoalBookGoalbook是一个在线平台,帮助教师、家长和学生协作跟踪进度。融合了社交网络的特质和个性化教育计划(IEP)跟踪软件,​​这个项目让学生和教师设定目标并为所有参与方查看一切的进展变得非常简单。

利用GoalBook,教师可以方便地访问所有的学生的资料,并审查他们的目标。在学生完成每个目标的节点时,老师可以监控每个学生的进度。当一个目标实现了,教师可以快速更新学生的个人资料,然后与其他团队成员分享。在她的网页上她可以很轻松地更新和庆祝任何学生取得的成就,以及看到他们分享的内容。

一个令人惊叹的游戏化工具,可供任何特定教育的教师使用,GoalBook把记录和跟踪转化为分分钟的就能完成的事情——让老师可以对学生的任何改变、进步或者问题立即通知家长和主要导师。一个伟大的教育游戏化解决方案。

教育游戏化示例#5 – The World Peace Game:游戏为基础的政治课堂模拟

1The World Peace Game这是弗吉尼亚州的教育家约翰·亨特的一个巧妙的创造,The World Peace Game是一个丰富、精细的政治模拟游戏,让年轻学生探索一个与我们现实不一样的世界,由四个或五个主要的国家组成。由于每个国家由学生团队执导,孩子们被鼓励去探索全球社会和学习各国之间的关系的复杂性。以社会、经济和哲学问题的方式看待世界,接受从环境危机到面对迫在眉睫的战争威胁的各种挑战。

现在,在经过持续28年的发展,The World Peace Game围绕代表虚构世界的一个大地理游戏棋盘,成为了一个动手性强,让学生和学生团队进行团体互动的剧场。教师引入资料以提供初始场景——现有条件、有利的资源和政治立场,从环境问题到军事形势的新的和不断发展的危机。鼓励学生运用自己的想象力和认知能力,寻求协作与合作,并找到有利于他们的团队以及全球社会的解决方案。

这种教育游戏化工具的主要目标是实现一个每个国家都处于合理和谐的状态,以最少量的军事干预的前提增进全球繁荣。随后的目标是让每一个国家团队的学生对信息具有的关键影响以及对信息是如何利用的获得充分的理解。通常,这些年轻的四、五年级的头脑产生的解决方案是颇有创意和令人惊讶的。这不仅是一个伟大的教育游戏化的例子,也是给我们社会整体的一个永恒课堂!

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未完待续

This post is written by Yukai Chou. Yu-kai is an International Gamification Keynote Speaker and a Partner for the Enterprise Gamification Consultancy. Started in 2003 as a Gamification Pioneer, he is the original creator of the Gamification Framework Octalysis and teaches/speaks about Octalysis throughout the US, Europe, and Asia. Yu-kai is also a Regular Speaker/Lecturer at Stanford University, and is rated as a Top 5 Gamification Guru by Leaderboarded.

与极客交朋友

极客是一群社交能力比较弱的人,同时他们又是不甘心于任何不足、缺陷的人,所以他们靠算法搞定社交,整出各种社交网站和应用来颠覆你们这些社交能力强的人的世界。现在你们完了,以前你们玩什么都不带上极客,不光爱理不理的,甚至常常有嘲笑、愚弄极客们的现象,可如今你们的世界已经被极客们征服,你们的社交已经完全离不开极客们创造的工具,你们不得不开始膜拜极客们,你们需要学习如何跟极客交朋友。

极客分两类,一类由geek这个单词的本意演变而来,一类由极客精神引申而来。

第一类描述的人群比较窄,geek本来的意思是不寻常的、古怪的人,通常是令人讨厌的,以前当人们说一个人很geeky的时候是带着鄙夷的,类似于中国人常说的书呆子。可是随着这些呆子们用facebook、twitter、foursquare、instagram、line、vine、path、tesla等等一次次地对这个世界做出改变的时候,这个单词的释义慢慢由贬义转向褒义了,出现了电脑高手、技术高手、追求极致等等的意思。这类极客总体上还是跟技术,尤其是计算机技术相关的,所以人群还比较小。

第二类就是在极客们的那种不甘于平庸、不完美而追求极致,用行动对这个世界做出改变的精神气质上扩展开来的人群。这样极客这个称号就不仅仅被限制在技术方面了,如果你是个烹饪高手,不断做出创新你就是极客;如果你是个艺术家,用不同于寻常的方式创作你也是极客;即使你仅仅是在街上摆摊的,但你用了独到的方式来经营你的小买卖进而引起了轰动,你同样是个极客。这样极客的人群就扩大到了各行各业了,极客就是在各个领域里的那一批人,他们不满足于现状,不断发现周围世界的不足然后用极致的方式进行改造。

极客所涵盖的人群再广也改变不了他们是小众的事实,因为大众之所以是大众就是因为他们只希望能享受少数人努力带来的改变。而人的本性就是懒惰的,极客们就是被选中的那少数能克服懒惰,比大众多迈出了一步的人——他们不仅仅是想到这个世界应当要有什么改变,而且会付诸行动亲手来进行改造。

了解了极客才有可能跟他们交朋友。

  • 极客们很专注,因此不希望被打扰,所以不要拿无聊的琐事去烦他们,他们不会鸟你;
  • 不要去忽悠他们,因为他们的智商通常都很高,你忽悠他们的时候他们只是为了不伤你的面子不给你点破而已;
  • 发自内心地尊重他们,因为有了他们我们的世界才变得越来越用户友好,你仅仅是支付了钱是无法跟他们所做出的改变背后的意义相提并论的;
  • 极客们不喜欢说太多,只喜欢做更多,他们这样要求自己,也同样要求自己的朋友,你想做他们的朋友就尽量用行动来表示,他们对只有言语而没有实质行动的现象都会在自己的社交公式里给化掉的,在他们眼里不存在;
  • 极客们很注意谈话与思考的逻辑,他们倾向于只给你逻辑清晰地描绘一次他们的想法就够了,如果你不能很快明白,他们会找各种借口来远离你;
  • 极客们不太懂得站在别人的立场考虑问题(主要是不愿意),在他们眼中你就是一个黑匣子,跟他们交流只需要提供几个API接口进行高效的信息置换就可以,他们才懒得管你内部如何处理呢,他们认为那是你自己应当搞定的事……

其实最好的一种方式,就是你也成为一个极客,不仅仅幻想这个世界应当有什么改进的地方,更是拿出行动来改造这个世界,你就能真正理解极客并且成为极客们的好朋友了。

中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)关于比特币的那篇论文

今天上午在BTCChina上比特币一度涨到了2600多,一个多月前抱着试试看的心态,充了2500块钱开始玩,那时候才六百多一个比特币,虽然有点遗憾当初没多买点,但是也要保持理性,上午在2500的时候卖出一个之后把2500块钱提现。用帐户余额继续玩。这样即使将来亏完了,于我实际也没有什么影响,我的2500反正已经收回来了。

听说比特币多半年的时间了,但还没真正专心钻研过,所以先把这个发明的源头找到,一点点学习。搜到了比特币的发明者中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)的那篇论文,要是能弄明白,有空闲的话我试试看能不能把这篇论文给翻译一下。

Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System

Satoshi Nakamoto
[email protected]
www.bitcoin.org
Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they’ll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.

1. Introduction

Commerce on the Internet has come to rely almost exclusively on financial institutions serving as trusted third parties to process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for most transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust based model. Completely non-reversible transactions are not really possible, since financial institutions cannot avoid mediating disputes. The cost of mediation increases transaction costs, limiting the minimum practical transaction size and cutting off the possibility for small casual transactions, and there is a broader cost in the loss of ability to make non-reversible payments for non- reversible services. With the possibility of reversal, the need for trust spreads. Merchants must be wary of their customers, hassling them for more information than they would otherwise need. A certain percentage of fraud is accepted as unavoidable. These costs and payment uncertainties can be avoided in person by using physical currency, but no mechanism exists to make payments over a communications channel without a trusted party.
What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party. Transactions that are computationally impractical to reverse would protect sellers from fraud, and routine escrow mechanisms could easily be implemented to protect buyers. In this paper, we propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server to generate computational proof of the chronological order of transactions. The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes.

2. Transactions

We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.
Transactions
The problem of course is the payee can’t verify that one of the owners did not double-spend the coin. A common solution is to introduce a trusted central authority, or mint, that checks every transaction for double spending. After each transaction, the coin must be returned to the mint to issue a new coin, and only coins issued directly from the mint are trusted not to be double-spent. The problem with this solution is that the fate of the entire money system depends on the company running the mint, with every transaction having to go through them, just like a bank.
We need a way for the payee to know that the previous owners did not sign any earlier transactions. For our purposes, the earliest transaction is the one that counts, so we don’t care about later attempts to double-spend. The only way to confirm the absence of a transaction is to be aware of all transactions. In the mint based model, the mint was aware of all transactions and decided which arrived first. To accomplish this without a trusted party, transactions must be publicly announced [1], and we need a system for participants to agree on a single history of the order in which they were received. The payee needs proof that at the time of each transaction, the majority of nodes agreed it was the first received.

3. Timestamp Server

The solution we propose begins with a timestamp server. A timestamp server works by taking a hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash, such as in a newspaper or Usenet post [2-5]. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time, obviously, in order to get into the hash. Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain, with each additional timestamp reinforcing the ones before it.
TimestampServer

4. Proof-of-Work

To implement a distributed timestamp server on a peer-to-peer basis, we will need to use a proof- of-work system similar to Adam Back’s Hashcash [6], rather than newspaper or Usenet posts. The proof-of-work involves scanning for a value that when hashed, such as with SHA-256, the hash begins with a number of zero bits. The average work required is exponential in the number of zero bits required and can be verified by executing a single hash.
For our timestamp network, we implement the proof-of-work by incrementing a nonce in the block until a value is found that gives the block’s hash the required zero bits. Once the CPU effort has been expended to make it satisfy the proof-of-work, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing all the blocks after it.
Proof-of-work
The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If a majority of CPU power is controlled by honest nodes, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains. To modify a past block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of the block and all blocks after it and then catch up with and surpass the work of the honest nodes. We will show later that the probability of a slower attacker catching up diminishes exponentially as subsequent blocks are added.
To compensate for increasing hardware speed and varying interest in running nodes over time, the proof-of-work difficulty is determined by a moving average targeting an average number of blocks per hour. If they’re generated too fast, the difficulty increases.

5. Network

The steps to run the network are as follows:

  1. New transactions are broadcast to all nodes.
  2. Each node collects new transactions into a block.
  3. Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block.
  4. When a node finds a proof-of-work, it broadcasts the block to all nodes.
  5. Nodes accept the block only if all transactions in it are valid and not already spent.
  6. Nodes express their acceptance of the block by working on creating the next block in the chain, using the hash of the accepted block as the previous hash.

Nodes always consider the longest chain to be the correct one and will keep working on extending it. If two nodes broadcast different versions of the next block simultaneously, some nodes may receive one or the other first. In that case, they work on the first one they received, but save the other branch in case it becomes longer. The tie will be broken when the next proof- of-work is found and one branch becomes longer; the nodes that were working on the other branch will then switch to the longer one.
New transaction broadcasts do not necessarily need to reach all nodes. As long as they reach many nodes, they will get into a block before long. Block broadcasts are also tolerant of dropped messages. If a node does not receive a block, it will request it when it receives the next block and realizes it missed one.

6. Incentive

By convention, the first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block. This adds an incentive for nodes to support the network, and provides a way to initially distribute coins into circulation, since there is no central authority to issue them. The steady addition of a constant of amount of new coins is analogous to gold miners expending resources to add gold to circulation. In our case, it is CPU time and electricity that is expended.
The incentive can also be funded with transaction fees. If the output value of a transaction is less than its input value, the difference is a transaction fee that is added to the incentive value of the block containing the transaction. Once a predetermined number of coins have entered circulation, the incentive can transition entirely to transaction fees and be completely inflation free.
The incentive may help encourage nodes to stay honest. If a greedy attacker is able to assemble more CPU power than all the honest nodes, he would have to choose between using it to defraud people by stealing back his payments, or using it to generate new coins. He ought to find it more profitable to play by the rules, such rules that favour him with more new coins than everyone else combined, than to undermine the system and the validity of his own wealth.

7. Reclaiming Disk Space

Once the latest transaction in a coin is buried under enough blocks, the spent transactions before it can be discarded to save disk space. To facilitate this without breaking the block’s hash, transactions are hashed in a Merkle Tree [7][2][5], with only the root included in the block’s hash. Old blocks can then be compacted by stubbing off branches of the tree. The interior hashes do not need to be stored.
ReclaimingDiskSpace
A block header with no transactions would be about 80 bytes. If we suppose blocks are generated every 10 minutes, 80 bytes * 6 * 24 * 365 = 4.2MB per year. With computer systems typically selling with 2GB of RAM as of 2008, and Moore’s Law predicting current growth of 1.2GB per year, storage should not be a problem even if the block headers must be kept in memory.

8. Simplified Payment Verification

It is possible to verify payments without running a full network node. A user only needs to keep a copy of the block headers of the longest proof-of-work chain, which he can get by querying network nodes until he’s convinced he has the longest chain, and obtain the Merkle branch linking the transaction to the block it’s timestamped in. He can’t check the transaction for himself, but by linking it to a place in the chain, he can see that a network node has accepted it, and blocks added after it further confirm the network has accepted it.
SimplifiedPaymentVerification
As such, the verification is reliable as long as honest nodes control the network, but is more vulnerable if the network is overpowered by an attacker. While network nodes can verify transactions for themselves, the simplified method can be fooled by an attacker’s fabricated transactions for as long as the attacker can continue to overpower the network. One strategy to protect against this would be to accept alerts from network nodes when they detect an invalid block, prompting the user’s software to download the full block and alerted transactions to confirm the inconsistency. Businesses that receive frequent payments will probably still want to run their own nodes for more independent security and quicker verification.

9. Combining and Splitting Value

Although it would be possible to handle coins individually, it would be unwieldy to make a separate transaction for every cent in a transfer. To allow value to be split and combined, transactions contain multiple inputs and outputs. Normally there will be either a single input from a larger previous transaction or multiple inputs combining smaller amounts, and at most two outputs: one for the payment, and one returning the change, if any, back to the sender.
CombiningAndSplittingValue
It should be noted that fan-out, where a transaction depends on several transactions, and those transactions depend on many more, is not a problem here. There is never the need to extract a complete standalone copy of a transaction’s history.

10. Privacy

The traditional banking model achieves a level of privacy by limiting access to information to the parties involved and the trusted third party. The necessity to announce all transactions publicly precludes this method, but privacy can still be maintained by breaking the flow of information in another place: by keeping public keys anonymous. The public can see that someone is sending an amount to someone else, but without information linking the transaction to anyone. This is similar to the level of information released by stock exchanges, where the time and size of individual trades, the “tape”, is made public, but without telling who the parties were.
Privacy
As an additional firewall, a new key pair should be used for each transaction to keep them from being linked to a common owner. Some linking is still unavoidable with multi-input transactions, which necessarily reveal that their inputs were owned by the same owner. The risk is that if the owner of a key is revealed, linking could reveal other transactions that belonged to the same owner.

11. Calculations

We consider the scenario of an attacker trying to generate an alternate chain faster than the honest chain. Even if this is accomplished, it does not throw the system open to arbitrary changes, such as creating value out of thin air or taking money that never belonged to the attacker. Nodes are not going to accept an invalid transaction as payment, and honest nodes will never accept a block containing them. An attacker can only try to change one of his own transactions to take back money he recently spent.
The race between the honest chain and an attacker chain can be characterized as a Binomial Random Walk. The success event is the honest chain being extended by one block, increasing its lead by +1, and the failure event is the attacker’s chain being extended by one block, reducing the gap by -1.
The probability of an attacker catching up from a given deficit is analogous to a Gambler’s Ruin problem. Suppose a gambler with unlimited credit starts at a deficit and plays potentially an infinite number of trials to try to reach breakeven. We can calculate the probability he ever reaches breakeven, or that an attacker ever catches up with the honest chain, as follows [8]:
p = probability an honest node finds the next block
q = probability the attacker finds the next block
qz = probability the attacker will ever catch up from z blocks behind
Calculations1
Given our assumption that p > q, the probability drops exponentially as the number of blocks the attacker has to catch up with increases. With the odds against him, if he doesn’t make a lucky lunge forward early on, his chances become vanishingly small as he falls further behind.
We now consider how long the recipient of a new transaction needs to wait before being sufficiently certain the sender can’t change the transaction. We assume the sender is an attacker who wants to make the recipient believe he paid him for a while, then switch it to pay back to himself after some time has passed. The receiver will be alerted when that happens, but the sender hopes it will be too late.
The receiver generates a new key pair and gives the public key to the sender shortly before signing. This prevents the sender from preparing a chain of blocks ahead of time by working on it continuously until he is lucky enough to get far enough ahead, then executing the transaction at that moment. Once the transaction is sent, the dishonest sender starts working in secret on a parallel chain containing an alternate version of his transaction.
The recipient waits until the transaction has been added to a block and z blocks have been linked after it. He doesn’t know the exact amount of progress the attacker has made, but assuming the honest blocks took the average expected time per block, the attacker’s potential progress will be a Poisson distribution with expected value:
Calculations2
To get the probability the attacker could still catch up now, we multiply the Poisson density for each amount of progress he could have made by the probability he could catch up from that point:
Calculations3
Rearranging to avoid summing the infinite tail of the distribution…
Calculations4
Converting to C code…

#include <math.h>
   double AttackerSuccessProbability(double q, int z)
   {
       double p = 1.0 - q;
       double lambda = z * (q / p);
       double sum = 1.0;
       int i, k;
       for (k = 0; k <= z; k++)
       {
           double poisson = exp(-lambda);
           for (i = 1; i <= k; i++)
poisson *= lambda / i;
           sum -= poisson * (1 - pow(q / p, z - k));
       }
       return sum;
   }

Running some results, we can see the probability drop off exponentially with z.

   q=0.1
   z=0    P=1.0000000
   z=1    P=0.2045873
   z=2    P=0.0509779
   z=3    P=0.0131722
   z=4    P=0.0034552
   z=5    P=0.0009137
   z=6    P=0.0002428
   z=7    P=0.0000647
   z=8    P=0.0000173
   z=9    P=0.0000046
   z=10   P=0.0000012
   q=0.3
   z=0    P=1.0000000
   z=5    P=0.1773523
   z=10   P=0.0416605
   z=15   P=0.0101008
   z=20   P=0.0024804
   z=25   P=0.0006132
   z=30   P=0.0001522
   z=35   P=0.0000379
   z=40   P=0.0000095
   z=45   P=0.0000024
   z=50   P=0.0000006
Solving for P less than 0.1%…

   P < 0.001
   q=0.10   z=5
   q=0.15   z=8
   q=0.20   z=11
   q=0.25   z=15
   q=0.30   z=24
   q=0.35   z=41
   q=0.40   z=89
   q=0.45   z=340
12. Conclusion

We have proposed a system for electronic transactions without relying on trust. We started with the usual framework of coins made from digital signatures, which provides strong control of ownership, but is incomplete without a way to prevent double-spending. To solve this, we proposed a peer-to-peer network using proof-of-work to record a public history of transactions that quickly becomes computationally impractical for an attacker to change if honest nodes control a majority of CPU power. The network is robust in its unstructured simplicity. Nodes work all at once with little coordination. They do not need to be identified, since messages are not routed to any particular place and only need to be delivered on a best effort basis. Nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone. They vote with their CPU power, expressing their acceptance of valid blocks by working on extending them and rejecting invalid blocks by refusing to work on them. Any needed rules and incentives can be enforced with this consensus mechanism.
References
[1] W. Dai, “b-money,” http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt, 1998.
[2] H. Massias, X.S. Avila, and J.-J. Quisquater, “Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirements,” In 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, May 1999.
[3] S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “How to time-stamp a digital document,” In Journal of Cryptology, vol 3, no 2, pages 99-111, 1991.
[4] D. Bayer, S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital time-stamping,” In Sequences II: Methods in Communication, Security and Computer Science, pages 329-334, 1993.
[5] S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Secure names for bit-strings,” In Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 28-35, April 1997.
[6] A. Back, “Hashcash – a denial of service counter-measure,” http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf, 2002.
[7] R.C. Merkle, “Protocols for public key cryptosystems,” In Proc. 1980 Symposium on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society, pages 122-133, April 1980.
[8] W. Feller, “An introduction to probability theory and its applications,” 1957.

BigBlueButton录像文件太多,Ubuntu Server硬盘不够怎么办?

使用BigBlueButton时开启了录制功能,时间一久就发现空间不够用了,于是先用最基本的操作,删掉已外理过的录音文件来清理出空间:

1. 清理Log
  sudo bbb-conf –clean
2.  删除旧的录像、文档、
   /etc/cron.daily/bigbluebutton
删除 `exit 0` 行来启用自动清理
清理项有:
find /var/bigbluebutton -maxdepth 1 -type d -name “*-*” -mtime +11 -exec rm -r ‘{}’ \;
find /usr/share/red5/webapps/video/streams -name “*.flv” -mtime +1 -exec rm ‘{}’ \;
find /var/bigbluebutton/deskshare -name “*.flv” -mtime +1 -exec rm ‘{}’ \;
find /var/freeswitch/meetings -name “*.wav” -mtime +1 -exec rm ‘{}’ \;
3.  删除已处理过的wav文件
sudo find /var/bigbluebutton/recording/process -name “*.wav” -exec rm ‘{}’ \;
这样做了之后能撑一段时间,可是时间久了又不够了,第一个念头就是加一块硬盘,然后把BigBlueButton默认的录像存放路径修改到新的硬盘上。
由于BigBlueButton本身没有提供修改录像文件路径的命令,于是我把BigBlueButton录制、处理、存储、回放的整个过程都详细研究了一遍,把这个过程中我认为所有涉及到路径的代码都给改了,可是最终还是不成功,实在找不出问题出在哪里,只能放弃了这个方案。不过可以把这个过程先记录下来,以做参考,想看较为可行的方案的可以跳过这部分:

录像与回放功能目录结构

/usr/local/bigbluebutton/
└── core
    ├── Gemfile
    ├── Gemfile.lock
    ├── lib
    │   ├── recordandplayback
    │   │   ├── audio_archiver.rb
    │   │   ├── deskshare_archiver.rb
    │   │   ├── events_archiver.rb
    │   │   ├── generators
    │   │   │   ├── audio_processor.rb
    │   │   │   ├── audio.rb
    │   │   │   ├── events.rb
    │   │   │   ├── matterhorn_processor.rb
    │   │   │   ├── presentation.rb
    │   │   │   └── video.rb
    │   │   ├── presentation_archiver.rb
    │   │   └── video_archiver.rb
    │   └── recordandplayback.rb
    └── scripts
        ├── archive
        │   └── archive.rb
        ├── bbb-rap.sh
        ├── bigbluebutton.yml
        ├── cleanup.rb
        ├── process
        │   ├── README
        │   └── slides.rb
        ├── publish
        │   ├── README
        │   └── slides.rb
        ├── rap-worker.rb
        └── slides.yml

最终录像回放存放目录

  • /var/bigbluebutton/published/slides/<meeting-id> 
修改录像与回放目录:
把原有的录像路径下所有文件与目录拷到目标路径,如/mnt下
sudo cp -a /var/bigbluebutton /mnt/
则新的录像与回放目录为:/mnt/bigbluebutton

sudo vi /usr/local/bigbluebutton/core/scripts/slides.yml

修改其中的publish_dir
sudo vi /usr/local/bigbluebutton/core/scripts/bigbluebutton.yml
修改其中的recording_dir published_dir raw_deskshare_src raw_presentation_src
sudo vi /usr/local/bigbluebutton/core/scripts/cleanup.rb
修改其中的PUBLISHED_DIR UNPUBLISHED_DIR RECORDING_DIR
sudo vi /var/lib/tomcat6/webapps/bigbluebutton/WEB-INF/classes/bigbluebutton.properties
修改其中的presentationDir BLANK_SLIDE BLANK_THUMBNAIL recordStatusDir publishedDir unpublishedDir
使用下面这条命令前先把地址修改为想要修改的地址,以便网络用户有权限访问该位置的内容
sudo chown -R tomcat6:tomcat6 /mnt/bigbluebutton/playback/
sudo vi /etc/bigbluebutton/nginx/slides.nginx
修改其中的地址
sudo chown tomcat6 /mnt/bigbluebutton
修改目录所有者
sudo bbb-conf –clean
折腾了半天,结果还是无法正常录像,重启服务器也没用,只能换个思路了。左思右想,想出了这么一个办法:
  1. 把 /var/bigbluebutton目录内的文件移动到别处
  2. 新增一块硬盘挂载到/var/bigbluebutton目录
  3. 用ls -ld /var/bigbluebutton查看一下目录权限,所有者是否为tomcat6
  4. 如果不是则修改为tomcat6
  5. 把移到别处的文件拷回/var/bigbluebutton下
  6. 在sudo vi /etc/fstab中新建条目以便每次重启时自动加载

附上挂新硬盘的方法:

查看移动硬盘
sudo fdisk -l
挂载
sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 /var/bigbluebutton
注:如果是fat32格式的则用-t vfat参数,如果是ext3格式的则用-t ext3参数,/dev/sdb1改为你要挂载的硬盘的实际名称
设置重启后自动挂载
sudo vi /etc/fstab
在该文件中添加:
/dev/sdb1        /var/bigbluebutton       ext4    defaults        0       0

由于BigBlueButton当前版本对于录像的存储、发布等功能还是非常不完善,只能先这样处理了。

当硬盘再次满了的时候还会面临新的问题。再加一块的话要么加一块更大的硬盘,把原有的录像文件复制到新的硬盘上;要么就制定一个规则,把超过一定时间的录像文件删掉,腾出新的空间来用。

SOA参考资料

AgileEAS.NET SOA 中间件/敏捷软件开发平台

软件开发平台是企业信息化最佳模式?
企业管理软件平台架构内幕揭秘

http://blog.csdn.net/david_lv/article/details/2277084
基于SOA体系结构的未来软件开发方法

开源软件SOA解决方案对企业的三大好处
SOA国家标准将于2013年6月1日起正式实施
中间件因云、移动而改变
企业SOA平台 JBoss SOA
eBay开源软件站发布SOA平台:Turmeric项目
揭示企业部署SOA六个阶段的过程发展
Hinchcliffe首席技术官:开源软件是SOA的未来吗?
“开源”SOA正在改写IT规划方程式
ig_soa_before

四千多条短信啊,总算从iPhone成功转移到i9108了!

你是不是也弄不清楚G3与3G?你是不是也不知道移动的3G如何办理?你是不是也不知道3G、G3、GPRS的区别?你是不是也不知道iPhone里如何备份短信到网络上(云端)?你是不是也……?这些问题我都产生过,下面就分享一下我的探索过程吧:

2008年初买的iPhone一直用到现在。从一拿出来人们就投来好奇的眼光,直到现在拿出来人们都不认识,说你这是山寨的吧。最终下定决心了,要换个新手机。iPhone 4S呢不太想买,有点期望iPhone 5,但iPhone 5还不知道什么时候才会有呢。另外在现在智能手机的大潮中,另外半壁江山我不能一无所知啊,得用个Android的手机才行。我可不是果粉,非要追着苹果才行。于是周六晚上三星Galaxy S II(i9108)到手上了。折腾了两天,目前感受是硬件比iPhone好,系统比iPhone差远了(主要指用户友好方面)。这里主要记录期间的两大事件吧。

第一是搞清楚了一个很小白的问题。我一直没弄清楚3G与GPRS的关系。网上搜也没有太多这方面的问题。有网友问了之后甚至被很多人嘲笑。上移动的网站看(我的号是移动的),竟然也没有这些基础知识的资料。我从最早使用手机开始就一直觉得移动的网站太垃圾,几乎都不上。这么多年过去了,移动的网站依旧是风采不减。
上了移动的网站后,我更晕了,出现了另一个词“G3”。我的直觉告诉我这就是移动的3G了。然后看到有广告语说是不用换卡也不用换号,就可以使用移动的G3。于是我就试了一下,用我的S2直接上网,果然没问题,并且速度很快。原来不用设置什么啊!
但又一个问题浮现在我的脑海里了,费用怎么算啊,我可没办理G3业务啊,我可不想跟当年刚使用iPhone时那样,没有办理GPRS套餐,结果一两天就把几百块钱用没了。又上移动的网站打算办G3的套餐,结果怎么都找不到,也没有说明。再次感叹,移动的网站真垃圾,我就不相信像我这样想的人全世界就我一个!
最后,把移动的网站翻烂了都没找到办G3的地方。无可奈何,打10086问吧。话务小姐的一句话立马让我顿悟了:“3G与GPRS的区别就是一个快一个慢,用的都是GPRS的套餐。”唉,我真无语了,你把这句话放在你的网站上能费多大劲啊?我觉着吧,这些其实应该算中国移动的产品优势啊,从2G到3G,什么都不用做,换个3G的手机就可以了,如果以前上过网,连套餐都不用重新申请,多好啊。结果让我没念它的好。还搞个“G3”出来把搞晕客户更上了一层楼。

第二就是通讯录、邮箱、日历、短信的转移。前三样都很简单了,用Google的帐户在Exchange里设置同步就可以了。设置方法呢参考这里:Setting up Google Sync with your iOS device
短信的事情又颇费了一些周折。找了好多工具都是只能备份与恢复通讯录的。QQ同步助手可以导出通讯录、短信、通话记录到网络上,然后又能在别的设备里进行恢复。
先在S2上面装的,原以为没什么问题了。结果在iPhone里安装了之后发现只能同步通讯录。安装的时候明明看到说明里是能同步短信的啊。搜了一下原来Apple不允许应用程序进行这样的操作。虽然表示理解吧,但我iPhone里有四千多条短信可怎么办啊?
试过了找别的软件,都没有这个功能。
最后终于找到了一个方法,还是用QQ同步助手,但不是通过App Store安装。这个方法适用于越狱与破解了的iPhone:

1. 在Cydia里添加源:http://www.qcydia.com
2. 完成之后再找到并安装QQ同步助手

装完后一看界面,心里咯噔一下,因为跟之前看着一样,只有同步通讯录的按钮。幸好没马上退出,用手往左一划,同步短信的界面出来了。这时仔细看才发现原来有两个小点在下面,这个应用有两页。真险。设置好帐号登录后先备份,然后在S2里选择恢复。恢复完成后打开短信,没反应了,重启一下手机,终于成功了,四千多条短信成功转移到我的新手机上了!
不过这个版本的没有同步通话记录的,想了想这个无所谓了。不管了。

59259567

这个翻墙方法要记一下

速度还真快,以前以为买VPN就是最好的了,但发现买的VPN也经常出问题,所以买的几个到期后就再也没续费了。但墙内实在无聊,不得已又学会了一招,没想到不但免费的,并且速度还很快。

简单说就是利用国外免费空间的SSH来翻墙。

  1. 在Google上搜:freehost cpanel
  2. 找一个打开速度不错的注册一下
  3. 进入Cpanel后台管理界面
  4. 在左侧找到Shared IP Address,这个IP地址就是SSH登陆时使用的服务器地址
  5. 进入FTP Accounts
  6. 往下翻,找到Path为你网站根目录的那个帐户,点Configure FTP Client
  7. FTP Username就是你的SSH用户名,密码就是你自己的密码,一般是自动给你生成一个发给你,你也可以修改成自己方便记的
  8. SFTP Server Port就是SSH服务器用的端口
  9. 到此SSH需要的信息就找全了,汇总一下:服务器IP、端口、用户名、密码

接下来就可以配置SSH客户端来翻墙了。也简单记一下,以Bitvise Tunnelier为例:

  1. 下载Bitvise Tunnelier:http://www.bitvise.com/tunnelier-download
  2. 安装
  3. 运行后先配置,在Login选项卡里填入前面找到的四样信息,注意Initial Method要选择Password才会出现密码输入框,为方便起见勾选下面的Store encrypted password in profile以方便以后登陆
  4. 在Options选项卡里去掉Open Terminal与Open SFTP前面的对勾
  5. 在Services选项卡里勾选SOCKS / HTTP Proxy Fowarding下面的Enabled
  6. Listen Interface: 127.0.0.1
  7. Listen Port: 1080
  8. 点Login,连接成功后会提示要不要保存,存了吧。

 

然后在浏览器里设置代理,这个就不详说了,对了,代理的端口就是前面设置的1080,也可以自己设别的,都行。